Enseignement de l'indonésien/Leçons/Famille
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|1.01 Ceci, cela|
|1.04 La famille|
|1.06 La maison|
|1.07 La météo|
|Examen • Planning|
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|Apprendre l'indonésien •
^ Enseignement de l'indonésien ^ | Leçon 7: << Se présenter | Leçon 8: Ma Famille | Leçon 9: Ma maison >>
Bacaan (Reading Comprehension)[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
Nama saya Budi. Saya tinggal di Jakarta bersama ayah dan ibu. Saya punya seorang kakak laki-laki. Namanya Anto. Saya juga punya seorang adik perempuan. Namanya Wati. Kakak dan adik tinggal bersama kami juga.
Ayah kerja di kantor setiap hari. Ibu tinggal di rumah, memasak makanan untuk kami. Setiap hari, saya, kakak, dan adik pergi ke sekolah.
My name is Budi. I live in Jakarta with [my] father and [my] mother. I have an older brother. His name is Anto. I also have a younger sister. Her name is Wati. Brother and sister stay with us too.
Father works at [an] office every day. Mother stays at home, cook[ing] food for us. Every day, I, brother, and sister go to [the] school.
Kosa Kata (Vocabulaire)[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
- adik = younger (brother/sister)
- ayah = bapak = father
- bersama = with (à ajouter dans wiktionnaire)
- hari = day
- ibu = mother
- juga = also / too
- kakak = older (brother/sister)
- kerja = work
- laki-laki = male (à ajouter dans wiktionnaire)
- makanan = food
- masak= cook
- perempuan = female (à ajouter dans wiktionnaire)
- pergi = go
- punya = have
- rumah = home / house
- sekolah = school (à ajouter dans wiktionnaire)
- seorang = one person
- setiap = every
- tinggal(*) = stay / live
- untuk = for
Note: The word "tinggal" is a tricky word. If it is used alone (not conjugated), it means to live or to stay. However, if you conjugate it, it means to leave or to die. Many people got confused on this. Think of it in Indonesian culture perspective. Many indigenous Indonesian believe that when people die, their soul is here to stay.
Family Structure[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
- Ayah is synonymous with bapak, which means father. You can use it interchangably when it comes to mentioning about our father. Note that we call adult males as bapak for courtesy, but we never call them ayah. The word ayah is exclusively for father-child relationship (either for mentioning father-by-blood or stepfather).
- Ibu means mother. Here, we don't make any distinction like bapak / ayah.
- Notice from the vocabulary list that the way Indonesian tells about siblings is gender-free. The word "kakak" is used to describe an older sibling (older brother or older sister). The word "adik" is used to describe a younger sibling (younger brother or younger sister). In order to further distinguish the gender, we must use the gender words: "laki-laki" for male or "perempuan" for female. Other gender-free words are made distinct similarly.
- Other family members:
Grammar[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
Awalan Me- (Me- prefix)[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
In the passage, you'll notice the first prefix in Indonesian: me-. It's the most important and commonly used in Indonesian.
When it's combined with verbs like above (masak → memasak), it means the same as the infinitive form. The only thing is that we emphasize that now the verb is in active form.
Almost all verb can be conjugated using me-, but not all. Unfortunately, in order to know which verbs can go with me- , you must read a lot. The general rule of thumb is that if the verb is reflexive (i.e. doing it to ourself), it usually can't be conjugated with me-. Even more so, don't think that the sense of reflexivity is the same to that of Spanish or your language. Below is some words that cannot be conjugated with me-, unless the meaning changes completely differently:
- tinggal = stay (→ meninggal = to die)
- tidur = sleep
- duduk = sit
- bangun = wake up (→ membangun = to build)
- berdiri = get up
- tawa = laugh
The prefix me- can also apply to other type of words, such as noun and adjectives. However, the rough goal is still the same: To make an active verb. So, you can verbize a noun or an adjective. Details on these will be covered later.
Note also that when words are conjugated with me-, the spelling is changed a little bit. The spelling change is called inflection. The inflection depends solely on the first letter of the original word. The rule on how the spelling changes can be viewed here: Prefix me- chapter.
Akhiran -an (Suffix -an)[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
Suffix -an is to nounize a verb. Note the example from the passage: makan → makanan. Analoguous to the prefix me-, you can virtually nounize almost any verb you want using -an suffix, as long as it makes sense. You can think of it as "things that do what the verb says".
Some of the verbs may also function as nouns already. For example: tidur (= sleep), which can be noun and verb at the same time. In this case, you cannot add -an suffix on it to make a noun out of it. (Note that the word tiduran does exist, but the meaning is "to lie down casually", not "sleep").
Note also that some words may have dual meanings, like bangun, which may mean to wake up or to build. Of course, if you add -an suffix, the second meaning is taken, i.e.:
- Bangun (= build) → Bangunan (= "things that was built" → building)
TODO: Load the chapter on suffix -an.
Awalan Se- (Prefix se-)[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
Prefix se- combined with noun would mean "one of that noun". In the example above, orang means person. Therefore, seorang means one person. In English, se + noun usually translates into a / an.
The se + noun word compounds are often used as a measure word, akin to those in Chinese. The measure words can be pretty complex. However, as being mentioned in the previous chapters, sebuah should be fine for most of the things. You must use seorang to indicate that the noun is a person, and use seekor for animals.
TODO: Load the chapter on prefix se-.
Grammar Summary[modifier | modifier le wikicode]
A simplified grammar summary for this chapter:
- Me + verb → active verb
- Verb + an → noun
- Se + noun → one of that noun
^ Enseignement de l'indonésien ^ | Leçon 7: Se présenter >> | Leçon 8: Ma Famille | Leçon 9: Ma maison >>| Leçon 9: Ma maison >>]]
Level One Lessons